WHEN DID THE FIRST HUMANS APPEAR ON EARTH?

Eastern Africa home of the first human beings?

WHEN DID THE FIRST HUMANS APPEAR ON EARTH?

The first humans lived on the plains of East Africa about 4-6 million years ago.

LATER SHELTERS

People lived simply under trees and in bushes, while some lived in caves.

 

Later, some used mud and sticks and grass to build shelters.

The first cities were built by Sumerians on the floodplains of the Mesopotamia and along the Indus Valley between what is now parts of Pakistan and India.

The Indus Valley

LARGER CITIES

These were built around Alexandria in Egypt and the ancient Greek city of Ephesus.

After many years, the Romans were able to carry water through pipes and add drainage so that the cities were cleaner.  They also made primitive central heating.

EARLY FARMERS

If we go back 9,000 years, experts tell us that there is evidence of farmers growing barley, millet, wheat and oats.

They would have used digging sticks to plant the seeds.  A longer and sharper tool would have been used to cut the grass.  It was called a scythe.

Scythe

IRAQ AND EGYPT

People living in Mesopotania (modern day Iraq and Egypt invented the plow.  It might have been pulled by humans until they hitched up aniamls such as horses or oxen.

THE DISCOVERY OF FIRE

About one million years ago, early humans discovered fire.  They became healthier as they could cook their meat and avoid germs when meat was left uncooked.  They used the fire for heat and to scare away wild animals.  Later, fire was used to melt metal for spears.

THE INVENTION OF THE WHEEL

The first wheels were used by potters to make vases and pots.

This was about 3,500 BCE in Mesopotamia.   About 3,200 BCE or 300 years later, the wheel was used in a wheelbarrow and in chariot wheels.

FIRE AND TOOL MAKING

Early humans heated up stones and then chipped away at them to make blades and tools that were sharp that could penetrate things.

Archeologists working in South Africa have discovered a cave that shows these skills some 800,000 years ago.   About 100,000 years ago in several countries there are examples of fire being used to make ceramics.

Metal working with fire seems to have taken place 100,000 years ago.  These metals that came from fire heating could be used in the making of spears or for knives that could have been fitted into wood and secured there.

The Sun: Some Fun Facts for Kids

Humans have always been in fascinated by the sun.  Ancient Egyptians had a sun godcalled RA.

Ra

In central America, the Aztec’s sun god was named Tonatiuh.

Tonatiuh

Human life would disappear without the sun.  All living things- human and non-human need the sun for heat and light.  Grass, crops, plants grow and feed the planet’s inhabitants through a process called PHOTOSYNTHESIS.

 

 

The sun together with water and carbon dioxide helps plant life to grow.  Human bodies need the sun to give us vitamin D which is produced underneath the skin.

How big is the Sun?

-one million earths could fit inside the sun.  Scientists consider it an AVERAGE-SIZED star.

How Long Does it Take for Light to Reach Earth?

The light that you are now seeing left the sun eight (8) minutes ago.

How Old is the Sun?

I am 4.6 million years old!

How Hot is the Sun?

Let’s put it his way, if you drove into the sun by spaceship, you would burn up long before you reached its inner core. The inner core is thought to be around 160 million degrees Celsius.!!!  The outer temperature is around 5500 Celsius (9,941 Fahrenheit) The average temperature of the earth is below 60 Celsius.

Around 74% of the Sun’s mass is made up of hydrogen. Helium makes up around 24% while heavier elements such as oxygen, carbon, iron and neon make up the remaining percentage.

Kids Can Make Zucchini Fries

Easy to Make:  Zucchini Fries.

Zucchini fries are delicious.  They are quick to make, and unlike greasy French fries, Zucchini fries have just a little olive oil sprinkled over them.

Let’s Get Going:

Simply cut your zucchini into quarters lengthwise, sprinkle on that Parmesan goodness and throw into the oven to let it get nice and crisp.

Here are the simple ingredients.  Most of them will be found in your kitchen.

—zucchini, quartered lengthwise

—1/2 cup freshly grated Parmesan

—1/2 teaspoon dried thyme

—1/2 teaspoon dried oregano

—1/2 teaspoon dried basil

—1/4 teaspoon garlic powder

—  sprinkle lightly with salt and freshly ground black pepper,

—2 tablespoons olive oil

—2 tablespoon chopped fresh parsley leaves

DIRECTIONS

Oven:

1.  Make sure that you are allowed to operate the oven or ask an adult to help.

2. Preheat oven to 350 degrees F.

3. Coat a cooling rack with nonstick spray and place on a baking sheet; set aside.

Small Bowl Needed

4. In a small bowl,MIX Parmesan, thyme, oregano, basil, garlic powder, salt and pepper.  Don’t put in too much salt or pepper.

You can always add these later when everything is cooked.

Baking Sheet

5. Place zucchini onto prepared baking sheet. Drizzle (add very little) olive oil— and sprinkle with Parmesan mixture.

Into the Oven

6. Place into oven and bake until tender, about 15 minutes.

7.  Turn on the switch that says “broil.”  The oven is hot, so check with an adult when doing this action.

Then broil for 2-3 minutes, or until crisp and golden brown.

Serve immediately, garnished with parsley, if desired.

Bon Appétit  which is French for……enjoy your meal.

History of Kites with Images – So, Go Fly a Kite!

History of Kites

China

No one can explain when the first kite was made, but most experts believe that China was the first country to fly kites.  One legend tells of a  farmer who invented a kite to keep his hat on while he was working.

Other experts state that the first kite was made in the Chinese city of Shandong.  The first kites were made from light materials such as paper and silk and were  framed by bamboo.

Traders from China brought kites with them to Korea and India.  It is said that Chinese Buddhist monks used kites to scare away ‘evil spirits’ that might attack the plants and crops.

Marco Polo

Marco Polo was an Italian who was one of the first Europeans to visit and trade with China.  In 1295 he drew kites and wrote about them.

Scientists Use Kites

A Scottish meteorologist named Alexander Wilson used a kite with a thermometer attach to measure the temperature at 3,000 feet.  This was in the year 1749.  Three years later Benjamin Franklin and his son flew a kite and proved that lightning was indeed electricity.

Kite Flying Around the World

In 1964, The American Kitefliers Association was formed and now has over 4000 members in at least 35 nations. Their annual convention is the largest gathering of serious kite fliers in the World.

So what are you waiting for…..”Go fly a kite!”

Come With Me to Africa

 

Ranger Jabari and the African Animals
Ranger Jabari and the African Animals

Would you like to drive across the Serengeti Plain of Africa in a Landrover Jeep?  There will be Jabari and two of his ranger friends.  They will be looking for sick animals and stopping the poaching of elephant and rhino tusks.  You can journey with them in my story, “Ranger Jabari and the African Animals.”

Here is the cover.  It will be available after Christmas, 2016 as an ebook on Amazon, Barnes & Noble, Kobo and Apple iBooks.

There is a bonus feature of African Myths or stories.  Sometimes, Ranger Jabari tells the stories around the campfire much to the delight of his ranger friends.

 

 

 

Riddles Are So Much Fun – Try These Ones

 

Scroll down for the answers.

1 What begins with the letter T, ends with the letter T and has “T” in it?

2.  What has a neck but no head?

3.  What comes in the morning, has wheels,  and makes mom happy all day?

 

4.  What gets wetter as it dries?

5.  What letter do you add to the number one to make it disappear?

 

6.  What goes up and doesn’t come back down

7.   The more you take, the more you leave behind?  What am I?

8.  What belongs to you, but is used more by others?

9.   Everyone has it and no one can lose it, what is it?

10.   Mr. Brown has five daughters and each daughter has a brother.  How many children does Mr. Brown have?

I can’t take any more riddles…zzz zzzz

 

 

Scroll down for answers……

 

 

 

 

Answers.

 

  1.    Teapot
  2.    bottle
  3.   the school bus
  4.  towel
  5. Add “G” and you get gone!
  6. Your age
  7. foot steps
  8. Your name
  9. Your shadow
  10. .  six children.  Each daughter has a brother, but there is only one boy and he has five sisters.

“Forever Young” Song by Bob Dylan for His Son – Inspirational

“Forever Young” by Bob Dylan

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Written for his son, Jakob

May God bless and keep you always
May your wishes all come true
May you always do for others
And let others do for you
May you build a ladder to the stars
And climb on every rung
May you stay forever young
Forever young, forever young
May you stay forever young.
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May you grow up to be righteous
May you grow up to be true
May you always know the truth
And see the lights surrounding you
May you always be courageous
Stand upright and be strong
May you stay forever young
Forever young, forever young
May you stay forever young.

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May your hands always be busy
May your feet always be swift
May you have a strong foundation
When the winds of changes shift
May your heart always be joyful
And may your song always be sung
May you stay forever young
Forever young, forever young
May you stay forever young.

 

Mrs. Claus and the November Visit: Winner Canadian Library Competition

mrs-claus-small

The above ebook for children is now available on Amazon, Barnes & Noble, Kobo and Apple iBooks.  This book was a winner in the Canadian Library Association’s Competition and was published in Winners’ Circle 6 (anthology of short stories).

Here is a wonderful look into the person of Mrs Claus.  It outlines how she met Mr. Claus and how on their wedding day, they vowed to make a difference in the world.

Oliver: New York Boy With Problems

Mr. Claus hands his wife a letter from Oliver.  He intends to runaway.  Santa is very busy in November with toys to make.  He asks Mrs. Claus to take care of the problem.  Mrs. Claus climbs into the sleigh and Rudolph take off across the North Pole.  Below them is Santa’s workshop.  They head south and cross the aqua-blue ocean with its crystal icebergs glistening in the light of the moon.

Can Mrs. Claus solve Oliver’s problem?   This is a award-winning ebook waiting to be placed in the hands of a child.

 

Good Breakfast- Makes For a Good Day!

Fuel up!
Fuel up!
Simple but effective brain power
Simple but effective brain power

 

unknown-2 Breakfast, there are two words here – break and fast.   We break the fast (not eating) from the time we went to bed until the time we wake up. Our body is like a car, we run out of gas/petrol and need to fuel up.

Think of it this way, one of your parents or guardians does not put gasoline/petrol into the car before going to work in the morning. The car needs energy to work and this is the same with the human body.

When I was a kid, I couldn’t eat any food until an hour or so after I got out of bed. I would make a peanut and banana sandwich.   I ate this upon arriving at school. As soon as I ate, I could feel the energy coming into my mind.

Here is an idea for an easy to make breakfast.

Fuel for your body and brain
Fuel for your body and brain

Ingredients

  • 1 egg
  • pinch salt and pepper
  • 1 English muffin
  • pat butter
  • slice of cheese (optional)
  • 1 tsp butter for muffin
  • bacon

Directions

  • Heat a small non-stick frying pan over medium heat. Place an egg ring or round cookie cutter (about 3 1/4 in. in diameter) in pan and place 1/2 tsp butter inside ring.
  • Beat 1 egg in a bowl with a pinch each of salt and pepper until egg white and yolk are mixed together.
  • Toast a split English muffin.
  • When butter in pan is melted and sizzling, pour egg into ring (it will begin to bubble), turn heat down slightly and cook for 3 min or until egg is almost fully set (top will still be runny).
  • Run the tip of a knife inside the metal ring to loosen, pull off and flip egg in pan. Cook for 30 sec. or until just set.
  • Top with 1/2 oz thinly sliced cheddar cheese.
  • Butter English muffin with 1 tsp of butter and place egg with cheese. Serve immediately or wrap in waxed paper to eat on the go.

Blog of Synonyms: Short Story for Kids

THE HARE WAS AN HEIR TO

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THE KNIGHT THAT RODE AT NIGHT ©

Here in an opportunity to improve your spelling and word recognition.  A synonym is a word that sounds the same as another word but is spelled differently.  For example:  knight and night.

Here is my story.   copyright Pauline Gallagher.  ©

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The old knight rode up to his castle during the night. Sir Goodly was a kind man and he vowed to leave the castle and all his money to Harry hare his heir.

Puffin bird
Puffin bird ………Harry watched the sick knight puffing and coughing into a handkerchief of a puffin bird.

 

Harry watched the sick knight puffing and coughing into a handkerchief of a puffin bird.

horse's voice is hoarse because he has a cold
horse’s voice is hoarse because he has a cold

“Wait,” shouted Harry Hare, “Let me carry some of the weight that you are carrying!” Sir Goodly was laughed.   “Harry Hare, just look at your hair It is blowing in all directions! Sir Goodly’s horse laughed, but the horse’s voice was hoarse.

“What’s wrong with your horse’s voice,” asked Harry Hare.“He has a bad cold and it just became worse, after we crossed the ocean during a bad gale.”

Harry the hare and heir
Harry the hare and heir

“Oh, No!” cried Harry. “I have some bad news.  A wicked witch named Gail,  told me she would come here after the gale at sea. Sir Goodly reached into his horse’s saddle and produced a red book from which he read the title. “Spells against Witches.”

 

Harry was delighted.  Suddenly, the knight froze in the night. “Did you hear that, Harry?”  The sound seems to be here.

“What kind of sound?” asked Harry.

“It was a mournful wail.  Just like a baby’s loud cry!”

The wail of a baby
The wail of a baby

The wail came again and Harry heard it this time.

 

“It is so loud a wail,” said Harry, “that is could come from a large whale!”

whale
whale

“It’s Gail in the gale!” shouted Harry. “I can see her flying towards us on a broom stick. Quick! Let’s pull up the moat bridge.”

Just as the drawbridge went up, Gail shot a fire bolt that made a hole near the castle wall.

Sir Goodly was concerned, “If she keeps shooting and making holes, then the whole castle might collapse!”

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“The air smells of gunpowder,” said the heir who was twitching his hare nose. Suddenly, his face went pale with shock.

“Look, Sir Goodly,” shouted the hare whose hair stood up on ends. “There is fire coming out of the holes!”images-2

“Don’t stand there looking pale,” growled Sir Goodly, “Grab a pail of water and throw it over the walls of the castle.

The hare grabbed a pale of water and the knight instructed his horse to drink water and then spray it over the burning holes.

Soon the whole outside of the castle was no longer burning.

Gail, the witch yelled at them.

“I will return.”

The hare turned to Sir Goodly.   “Sir Knight, I just want to say that I did not like the way you shouted at me. It was not right, and I will write about it in my journal tonight.”

Sir Goodly was sorry.

“Harry. I am sorry for my harsh words.    I love you like a son.  Tomorrow, when the sun is out, we will ride past that tall beech tree and have a picnic on the beach.”

beech
beech
beach
beach

Harry hugged the knight and realized that the night was turning into day. “After a good sleep, I’ll make us a picnic lunch. I will be sure to include two pairs of pears. That will be four pears.”

a pair of pears
a pair of pears

“Make sure that Bongo the bear does not eat the two pairs of pears. That I could not bear to see the picnic basket bare with no food in it.”

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They had a lovely picnic and the knight lived for many, many years.   © Pauline Gallagher ©  Not to be copied.