WHEN DID THE FIRST HUMANS APPEAR ON EARTH?
The first humans lived on the plains of East Africa about 4-6 million years ago.
People lived simply under trees and in bushes, while some lived in caves.
Later, some used mud and sticks and grass to build shelters.
The first cities were built by Sumerians on the floodplains of the Mesopotamia and along the Indus Valley between what is now parts of Pakistan and India.
These were built around Alexandria in Egypt and the ancient Greek city of Ephesus.
After many years, the Romans were able to carry water through pipes and add drainage so that the cities were cleaner. They also made primitive central heating.
If we go back 9,000 years, experts tell us that there is evidence of farmers growing barley, millet, wheat and oats.
They would have used digging sticks to plant the seeds. A longer and sharper tool would have been used to cut the grass. It was called a scythe.
IRAQ AND EGYPT
People living in Mesopotania (modern day Iraq and Egypt invented the plow. It might have been pulled by humans until they hitched up aniamls such as horses or oxen.
THE DISCOVERY OF FIRE
About one million years ago, early humans discovered fire. They became healthier as they could cook their meat and avoid germs when meat was left uncooked. They used the fire for heat and to scare away wild animals. Later, fire was used to melt metal for spears.
THE INVENTION OF THE WHEEL
The first wheels were used by potters to make vases and pots.
This was about 3,500 BCE in Mesopotamia. About 3,200 BCE or 300 years later, the wheel was used in a wheelbarrow and in chariot wheels.
FIRE AND TOOL MAKING
Early humans heated up stones and then chipped away at them to make blades and tools that were sharp that could penetrate things.
Archeologists working in South Africa have discovered a cave that shows these skills some 800,000 years ago. About 100,000 years ago in several countries there are examples of fire being used to make ceramics.
Metal working with fire seems to have taken place 100,000 years ago. These metals that came from fire heating could be used in the making of spears or for knives that could have been fitted into wood and secured there.